Compliance and Conflict of Value in Public Policy Implementation: Comparison between the New Order and the Reformation Era

Main Article Content

Dwiyanto Indiahono Erwan Purwanto Agus Pramusinto


This research aims to examine differences in the relationship of bureaucratic and political officials during the New Order (Soeharto’s era) and the Reformation (post-Soeharto) era within the arena of public policy implementation. This is a matter of importance given that there is a change in relations between the two from integration in the New Order to bureaucratic impartiality in the Reformation Era. This study attempts to answer the question: How were the relations of bureaucratic and political officials in the implementation of local level public policy during the New Order and the Reformation Era? A qualitative research has been conducted in Tegal Municipality using the following data collection techniques: interview, focus group discussion, documentation, and observation. Tegal Municipality was selected as the study location because of the unique relationship shown between the mayor and the bureaucracy. Its uniqueness lies in the emergence of bureaucratic officials who dare to oppose political officials, based on their convictions that bureaucratic/public values should be maintained even if it means having to be in direct conflict with political officials. This research indicates that the relationship between bureaucratic and political officials in the arena of local level policy implementation during the New Order was characterized as being full of pressure and compliance, whereas during the Reformation Era bureaucrats have the audacity to hinder policy implementation. Such audacity to thwart policies is considered to have developed from a stance that aims to protect public budget and values in policies. The occurring conflict of values here demonstrates a dichotomy of political and bureaucratic officials that is different from the prevailing definition of politics-administration dichotomy introduced at the onset of Public Administration studies.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
INDIAHONO, Dwiyanto; PURWANTO, Erwan; PRAMUSINTO, Agus. Compliance and Conflict of Value in Public Policy Implementation: Comparison between the New Order and the Reformation Era. Policy & Governance Review, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 99-114, nov. 2018. ISSN 2580-4820. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 feb. 2024. doi:


Adams, G. B. (1992). Enthralled with modernity: The historical context of knowledge and theory development in public administration. Public Administration Review, 52(4), 363-373.
Alesina, A., & Guido, T. (2007). Bureaucrats or politicians? part I: A single policy task. The American Economic Review, 97(1), 169-179.
Apostolache, M. C. (2015). The integrity of local elected officials from the perspective of the national integrity agency. Journal of Public Administration, Finance and Law, 7, 7-15.
Bozeman, B. (2007). Public values and public interest: counterbalancing economic individualism. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Brodkin, E. Z. (2011). Policy work: Street-level organizations under new managerialism. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21, i253-i277.
Cohen, N., Sagi G. (2013). The incentives of street-level bureaucrats and inequality in tax assessments. Administration & Society, 48(3), 267–289.
Cruise, P. L. (1997). Are proverbs really so bad? Herbert Simon and the logical positivist perspective in American public administration. Journal of Management History, 3(4), 342-359.
Dahl, R. (1998). On democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Daneke, G. A. (1990). A science of public administration?. Public Administration Review, 50(3), 383-392.
Demir, T., & Ronald, C. N. (2008). The politics- administration dichotomy: An empirical search for correspondence between theory and practice. Public Administration Review, 68(1), 81-96.
Dobuzinskis, L. (1997). Historical and epistemological trends in public administration. Journal of Management History, 3(4), 298-316.
Drometer, M. (2012). Bureaucrats and short- term politics. Public Choice, 151, 149-163. doi: 10.007/s11127-010-9738-y
Dunn, D. D., Legge Jr, J. S. (2002). Politics and administration in U.S. local governments. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 12(3), 401-422.
Esquith, S. L. (1997). John Rawls and the recent history of public administration. Journal of Management History, 3(4), 328-341.
Firdaus, F. (2015, May 8). Ikut Orasi Kritik Walikota Tegal Dirut PDAM Dicopot. Retrieved 2017, July 13 from read/999040/22/ikut-orasi-kritik-wali-kota- tegal-dirut-pdam-dicopot-1431084971
Fox, J., & Jordan, S. V. (2011). Delegation and accountability. The Journal of Politics, 73(3), 831-844. Frederickson, H. G. (1975). Organizational design: A post Minnowbrook perspective for the "New" public administration. Public
Administration Review, 35(4), 425-435.
Frederickson, H. G. (1989). Minnowbrook II: Changing epochs of public administration. Public Administration Review, 49(2), 95-100.
Golembiewski, R. T. (1974). Public administration as a field: Four developmental phases. Georgia Political Science Association Journal, 2(1), 24-25.
Graaf, G. d. (2011). The loyalties of top public administrators. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(2), 285-306. doi: 10.1093/jopart/muq028
Greitens, T. J. (2012). Moving the study of accountability forward. State & Local Government Review , 44 (1), 76-82. doi:10.1177/0160323X12440104
Harmon, M. M. (1989). The Simon/Waldo debate: A review and update. Public Administration Quarterly, 12(4), 437-451.
Hedge, D. M., Scicchitano, M. J., & Metz, P. (1991). The principal-agent model and regulatory federalism. The Western Political Quarterly, 44(4), 1055-1080. doi:10.1177/106591299104400414
Henr y, N. (1975). Paradigms of public administration. Public Administration Review, 35(4), 378-386.
Jun, J. S. (1993). What is philosophy of administration?. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 15(1), 46-51.
Karl, B. D. (1987). The American bureaucrat: A history of a sheep in wolves' clothing. Public Administration Review, 47(1), 26-34.
Kearne y, R. C., & Chandan, S. (1988). Professionalism and bureaucratic responsiveness: Conflict or compatibility?. Public Administration Review, 571-579.
Kirkhart, L. (1984). Domains of public administration theory. Dialogue, 7(1), 14-18.
Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-level bureaucracy: dilemmas of the individual in public services. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Maynard-Moody, S., & Musheno, M. (2003). Cops, teachers, counselors: stories from the front lines of public service. Ann Arbor: TheUniversity of Michigan Press.
McCurley III, J. (1979). The historian's role in the making of public policy. Social Science History, 3(2), 202-207.
McKay, A. M. (2011). The decision to lobby bureaucrats. Public Choice, 147(1-2), 123–138.
McVey, R. T. (1982). The Beamstaat in Indonesia. In B. R. O’G. Anderson, A. Kahin (Eds.), Interpreting Indonesian politics: thirteen contributions to the debate (pp. 137-148). New York, USA: Cornel University.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1992). Analisis data kualitatif. (T. R. Rohidi, Trans.). Jakarta: UI Press.
Moleong, L. J. (1990). Metodologi penelitian kualitatif (3rd Edition). Bandung: Remadja Karya.
Monfardini, P. (2010). Accountability in the new public sector: A comparative case study. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23(7), 632-46.
Neuhold, C., & Dobbels, M. (2015). Paper keepers or policy shapers? The conditions under which EP officials impact on The EU policy process. Comparative European Politics, 13(5), 577–595.
Nugroho, F. E. (2015, May 5). Siti Masitha mencopot jabatan direktur utama PDAM Kota Tegal. Retrieved 2017, July 13 from masitha-mencopot-jabatan-direktur-utama- pdam-kota-tegal
O’Sullivan, D. (2016). Power, politics and the street-level bureaucrat in indigenous Australian health. Journal of Sociology, 52(4), 646–660.
Okulicz-kozaryn, A. (2016). Happiness research for public policy and administration. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 10(2), 196-211. doi: 10.1108/TG-07-2015-0030.
Pesch, U. (2008). The Publicness of public administration. Administration & Society, 40(2), 170-193. doi: 10.1177/0095399707312828
Riccucci, N. M. (2010). Public administration: Tradition of inquiry and philosophies of knowledge. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
Rourke, F. E. (1960). Bureaucracy in conflict: Administrators and professionals. Ethics: An International Journal of Social, Political, and Legal Philosophy, 70(3), 220-227.
Rourke, F. E. (1992). Responsiveness and neutral competence in American bureaucracy. Public Administration Review, 52(6), 539-546.
Rutgers, M. R. (2015). As good as it gets? On the meaning of public value in the study of policy and management. American Review of Public Administration, 45(1), 29–45.
Ryan, N. (1999). Rationality and implementation analysis. Journal of Management History, 5(1), 36-52.
Schnose, V. (2015). Who is in charge here? Legislators, bureaucrats and the policy making process. Party Politics, 23(4), 1–22.
Shaw, C. K. Y. (1992). Hegel's theory of modern bureaucrac y. The American Political Science Review, 86(2), 381-389. doi: 10.2307/1964227
Simon, H. A., Peter, F. D., & Dwight, W. (1952). “Development of theory of democratic administration": Replies and comments. The American Political Science Review, 46(2), 494-503.
Sossin, L. (2005). Speaking truth to power? The search for bureaucratic independence in Canada. University of Toronto Law Journal, 55(1), 1-59.
Sukmajati, M. (2013). Relasi birokrat dan politisi: penjelajahan konsep. In E. Adriana, D. Mariana, & A. Irewati (Eds). Evaluasi Reformasi Birokrasi di Indonesia. Jakarta: AIPI.
Svara, J. H. (2001). The myth of the dichotomy: Complementarity of politics and administration in the past and future of public administration. Public Administration Review, 61(2), 176-183.
T oren, N. (1976). Bureaucracy and professionalism: A reconsideration of Weber's. Academy of Management Review, 1(3), 36-46. doi: 10.2307/257271
Waldo, D. (1952). Development of theory of democratic administration. The American Political Science Review, 46(1), 81-103.
Zhang, Y., Lee, R., Yang, K. (2012). Knowledge and skills for policy making: Stories from local public managers in Florida. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(1), 183-208. doi:10.1080/15236803.2012.12001677