Developing a New Capital City (IKN) In Indonesia: A Thematic Analysis

Main Article Content

Anirwan Anirwan A. M. Azhar Aljurida Tawakkal Baharuddin


The urgency of this research was identified from the ambitious new capital city (IKN) development project. This research aims to respond to this issue by studying the development plan. The method chosen is qualitative with a thematic analysis approach. The research data source comes from the official government website by searching official documents. The analysis tool that is maximized in data coding is Nvivo 12 Plus. This study mapped three critical themes in the IKN development plan, including the principles of development of the new capital city (IKN), the position and specificities of the new capital city (IKN), and the government's strategic efforts. In general, the IKN development theme focuses on an Indonesia-centric development orientation, development, and adaptation to the use of renewable technology and the clean technology industry for more environmentally friendly mobility and utilities, as well as accelerating the transformation of the Indonesian economy. This idea requires a government response by developing supporting infrastructure, including budget, governance, bureaucracy, and resources, and maintaining the social situation in development areas. This study is of academic interest because it provides insight into the principles and strategies underlying the development of Indonesia's new capital city (IKN), contributing to scientific discourse on sustainable development and government initiatives.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
ANIRWAN, Anirwan; ALJURIDA, A. M. Azhar; BAHARUDDIN, Tawakkal. Developing a New Capital City (IKN) In Indonesia: A Thematic Analysis. Policy & Governance Review, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 1, p. 1-18, jan. 2024. ISSN 2580-4820. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 16 june 2024. doi:


Alola, A. A., Bekun, F. V., & Sarkodie, S. A. (2019). Dynamic impact of trade policy, economic growth, fertility rate, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on ecological footprint in Europe. Science of the Total Environment, 685, 702–709. https://

Angelidou, M. (2014). Smart city policies: A spatial approach. Cities, 41, S3–S11. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.cities.2014.06.007

Anthopoulos, L. G. (2015). Understanding the Smart City Domain: A Literature Review. In Transforming city governments for successful smart cities (pp. 9–21). Springer. https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-319-03167-5_2

Aswin, A., Ahad, M. P. Y., Silitonga, M. C. A., & Gusparirin, R. (2022). Bibliometric Analysis of Public Policy Research in Indonesia 2011-2021. Journal of Local Government Issues, 5(2), 80–96.

Baharuddin, T., Nurmandi, A., Qodir, Z., & Jubba, H. (2022). Bibliometric Analysis of Socio- Political Research on Capital Relocation: Examining Contributions to the Case of Indonesia. Journal of Local Government Issues (LOGOS), 5(1), 17–31.

Baloch, Q. B., Shah, S. N., Iqbal, N., Sheeraz, M., Asadullah, M., Mahar, S., & Khan, A. U. (2022). Impact of t ourism devel opment upon environmental sustainability: a suggested framework for sustainable ecotourism. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1–14. s11356-022-22496-w

Bappenas. (2020). Naskah Akademik Rancangan Undang-Undang tentang Ibu Kota Negara. https: //

Berawi, M. A., Yatmo, Y. A., Sari, M., Larasati, S. P., & Roberts, E. (2023). Pedoman Bangunan Cerdas Nusantara: Transformasi Hijau dan Digital. In

Bin Said, I., Kouakou, Y. I., Omorou, R., Bienvenu, A. L., Ahmed, K., Culleton, R., & Picot, S. (2022). Systematic review of Plasmodium knowlesi in Indonesia: a risk of emergence in the context of capital relocation to Borneo? Parasites and Vectors, 15(1), 1–9. https://

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2019). Reflecting on reflexive thematic analysis. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 11(4), 589–597.

Camero, A., & Alba, E. (2019). Smart City and information technology: A review. Cities, 93 , 84–94. https: //d cities.2019.04.014

Chai, C. S., & Kong, S.-C. (2017). Professional learning for 21st century education. Journal of Computers in Education, 4(1), 1–4.

Corso, R. (2020). Building an Innovative and Entrepreneurial Dimension in an Institution of Higher Education. Higher Education for the Future, 7(2), 200–214. https://doi. org/10.1177/2347631120930559

Damara, D., & Tolok, A. D. (2022). IKN Akan Jadi Superhub Ekonomi, Ini Enam Klaster Penopangnya. Ekonomi.Bisnis.Com. https://ekonomi.bisn penopangnya

Dincer, I. (2000). Renewable energy and sustainable development: A crucial review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4(2), 157–175. S1364-0321(99)00011-8

Dryglas, D., & Salamaga, M. (2018). Segmentation by push motives in health tourism destinations: A case study of Polish spa resorts. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 9, 234–246. jdmm.2018.01.008 (2022). Pembangunan Ibu Kota Nusantara Menjadi Stimulus Pemerataan Pertumbuhan Perekonomian Nasional. Www. Ekon.Go.Id.

Farida, F. (2021). Indonesia’s capital city relocation: A perspective of regional planning. Jurnal Perspektif Pembiayaan Dan Pembangunan Daerah, 9(3), 221–234.

Ferm, J., & Raco, M. (2020). Viability Planning, Value Capture and the Geographies of Market-Led Planning Reform in England. Planning Theory and Practice, 21(2), 218–235.

Government of Indonesia. (2022). Undang- Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 3 Tahun 2022 Tentang Ibu Kota Negara. In

Haviland, S., & Robbins, S. (2021). Career and Technical Education as a Conduit for Skilled Technical Careers: A Targeted Research Review and Framework for Future Research. ETS Research Report Series, 2021(1), 1–42.

Hoang, A. T., Pham, V. V., & Nguyen, X. P. (2021). Integrating renewable sources into energy system for smart city as a sagacious strategy towards clean and sustainable process. Journal of Cleaner Production, 305, 127161. jclepro.2021.127161

Ibrahim, A. H. H., Baharuddin, T., & Wance, M. (2023). Developing a Forest City in a New Capital City: A Thematic Analysis of the Indonesian Government’s Plans. Jurnal Bina Praja, 15(1), 1–13.

IKN. (2022). Tentang IKN. IKN.Go.Id. https://www.

Ivanov, D. (2020). Viable supply chain model: integrating agility, resilience and sustainability perspecti ves—lessons from and thinking beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Annals of Operations Research,1–21.

Kim, K. G. (2018). Planning Models for Climate Resilient and Low-Carbon Smart Cities: An Urban Innovation for Sustainability, E fficiency, Circularity, Resiliency, and Connectivity Planning. Urban Book Series, 77–85.

Kocdar, S., Bozkurt, A., & Goru Dogan, T. (2021). Engineering through distance education in the time of the fourth industrial revolution: Reflections from three decades of peer reviewed studies. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 29(4), 931–949.

Kodir, A., Hadi, N., Astina, I. K., Taryana, D., Ratnawati, N., & Idris. (2021). The dynamics of community response to the development of the New Capital (IKN) of Indonesia. In Sumarmi, N. Meiji, J. Purwasih, A. Kodir, E. Andriesse, Dorina Ilies, & K. Miichi (Eds.), Development, Social Change and Environmental Sustainabil it y (1s t ed., pp. 57–61). Routledge.

Komninos, N., Kakderi, C., Panori, A., & Tsarchopoulos, P. (2019). Smart City Planning from an Evolutionary Perspective. Journal of Urban Technology, 26(2), 3–20.

Kurniadi, A. (2019). Pemilihan Ibukota Negara Republik Indonesia Baru Berdasarkan Tingkat Kebencanaan. JMB: Jurnal Manajemen Bencana, 5(2), 1–12.

Kurniawan, R., Saputra, A. M. W., Wijayanto, A. W., & C aesarendra, W. (2022). Eco- environment vulnerability assessment using remote sensing approach in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Remote Sensing Applications: Societ y and Environment, 27, 100791. rsase.2022.100791

Lai, C. S., Jia, Y., Dong, Z., Wang, D., Tao, Y., Lai, Q. H., Wong, R. T. K., Zobaa, A. F., Wu, R., & Lai, L. L. (2020). A Review of Technical Standards for Smart Cities. Clean Technologies, 2(3),290–310.

Lund, H. (2007). Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development. Energy, 32(6), 912–919. energy.2006.10.017

Mensah, J. (2019). Sustainable development: Meaning, history, principles, pillars, and implications for human action: Literature review. Cogent Social Sciences, 5(1), 1653531.

Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources. (2020). Peraturan menteri nomor 4 Tahun 2020 tentang perubahan kedua atas peraturan menteri energi dan sumber daya mineral nomor 50 Tahun 2017 tentang pemanfaatan sumber energi terbarukan. In Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral. web/result/2032/detail

Nicolas, C., Kim, J., & Chi, S. (2020). Quantifying the dynamic effects of smart city development enablers using structural equation modeling. Sustainable Cities and Society, 53, 101916.

Nurdin, M., & Baharuddin, T. (2023). Capacity Build ing C h allenges and Strategies in the Development of New Capital City of Indonesia. Jurnal Bina Praja, 15(2), 221–232.

Omand, D. (2005). Developing national resilience. RUSI Journal, 150(4), 14–18.

Østergaard, P. A., Duic, N., Noorollahi, Y., Mikulcic, H., & Kalogirou, S. (2020). Sustainable d evelopment using renewable energy technology. Renewable Energy, 146, 2430–2437.

Palvia, S., Aeron, P., Gupta, P., Mahapatra, D., Parida, R., Rosner, R., & Sindhi, S. (2018). Online Education: Worldwide Status, Challenges, Trends, and Implications. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 21(4), 233–241.

Pribadi, K. S., & Chan, T.-K. (2022). New Capital City. In T.-K. Chan & K. S. Pribadi (Eds.), Construction in Indonesia (1st ed., pp. 109–118). Routledge.

Rachmawati, R., Haryono, E., Rohmah, A. A., Dewi Permatasari, F., & Fathurrahman, R. (2021). Smart Strategies of the Regional Preparation for the Plan of Moving the New Capital in the Regency of Kutai Kartanegara. 2021 International Conference on ICT for Smart Societ y (ICISS), 1–7. https://doi. org/10.1109/ICISS53185.2021.9533249

Rifaid, Abdurrahman, Baharuddin, T., & Kusuma, B. M. A. (2023). Smart City Development in the New Capital City : Indonesian Government Plans. Journal of Contemporary Governance and Public Policy, 4(2), 115–130. https://doi. org/10.46507/jcgpp.v4i2.141

Rifaid, Rachman, M. T., Baharuddin, T., & Gohwong, S. (2023). Public Trust : Indonesian Policy in Developing a New Capital City ( IKN ). Journal of Governance and Public Policy, 10(3), 263–273.

Schatz, E. (2003). What capital cities say about state and nation building. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 9(4), 111–140. https://doi. org/10.1080/13537110390444140

Scheiding, T. (2023). Empowering Women Economists at the American Economic Association Through the Development of the Publication Job Openings for Economists. Feminist Economics, 29(3), 199–224. https://

Setiawan, Y. E., Kusnanto, & Setiawan, A. A. (2022). Impact of Relocating the National Capital on the Projection of Electrical Energy Consumption: a Case Study in East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. 1st International Conference on Science and Technology Innovation (ICoSTEC), 1–5.

Shwayri, R. (2021). Economically Sustainable Development: Practical Models for Long-Term NGO Viability. In Economically Sustainable Development: Practical Models for Long-Term NGO Viability.

Surya, B., Salim, A., Hernita, H., Suriani, S., Menne, F., & Rasyidi, E. S. (2021). Land Use Change, Urban Agglomeration, and Urban Sprawl: A Sustainable Development Perspective of Makassar City, Indonesia. Land, 10(6), 556.

Susan, E. B., & Natu, M. M. (2023). Re-imagining the Gender Gap in Economic Participation and Opportunities: Assessing the Link Between Sustainable Development and Gender Equality in Some African Countries. Social Indicators Research, 11205. https://

Suswanta, Kurniawan, D., Nurmandi, A., & Salahudin. (2021). Analysis of the Consistency Policy Indonesia’s Capital Relocation in the Pandemic Era. Jurnal Studi Sosial Dan Politik, 5(1), 35–48. https://doi. org/10.19109/jssp.v5i1.7865

Sutoyo, E., & Almaarif, A. (2020). Twitter sentiment analysis of the relocation of Indonesia’s capital city. Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 9(4), 1620–1630. https://

Teo, H. C., Lechner, A. M., Sagala, S., & Campos- Arceiz, A. (2020). Environmental impacts of planned capitals and lessons for Indonesia’s new capital. Land, 9(11), 1–17. https://doi. org/10.3390/land9110438

Theresia, Simanungkalit, F., & Sihombing, R. M. (2020). The Impact of Indonesia Capital Relocation To Kalimantan Peatland Restoration. Sociae Polites, 21(2), 231–241.

Thorbecke, E. (2015). Economic development, equality, income distribution, and ethics. Handbook of Contemporary Behavioral Economics: Foundations and Developments, 647–658.

Toun, N. R. (2018). Analisis Kesiapan Pemerintah Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah dalam Wacana Pemindahan Ibu Kota Negara Republik Indonesia ke Kota Palangkaraya. Jurnal Academia Praja, 1(1), 129–148.

Yang, L., Elisa, N., & Eliot, N. (2019). Privacy and security aspects of E-government in smart cities. Smart Cities Cybersecurity and Privacy,89–102.

Yigitcanlar, T., Kankanamge , N., & Ve lla, K. (2021). How Are Smart City Concepts and Technologies Perceived and Utilized? A Systematic Geo-Twitter Analysis of Smart Cities in Australia. Journal of Urban Technology, 28(1–2), 135–154. https://doi. org/10.1080/10630732.2020.1753483

Yigitcanlar, T., O’Connor, K., & Westerman, C. (2008). The making of knowledge cities: Melbourne’s kno wledge-bas ed ur ban development experience. Cities, 25(2), 63–72. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.cities.2008.01.001