Optimizing Village Bureaucracy Transformation: Gorontalo, Indonesia

Main Article Content

Yanti Aneta Sandi Prahara Asna Aneta Jamaluddin Ahmad


This research analyzes bureaucratic transformation by optimizing village officials in Gorontalo Regency. Based on the research gap results, this study aims to analyze how bureaucratic transformation optimizes the role of village officials in providing public services. The academic interest of this research is to contribute new knowledge in the bureaucratic transformation field, especially through optimizing village officials. In addition, the practical importance is also quite significant, where this research can guide local governments and related stakeholders regarding strategies and concrete actions that can be taken to improve the quality of public services, bureaucratic efficiency, and responsiveness to community needs. This research uses simple descriptive statistics and is processed using the Nvivo 12 plus application. The community and local government want renewal or transformation in the bureaucratic structure of the village apparatus. The findings in the field are that the local government conducts competency mapping of village officials by conducting Computer Assisted Test (CAT) tests. The test results showed that of the 2089 participants who took part in the selection, only 179 people were ineligible, 50 people did not take the test, while those who passed the selection amounted to 1860. The transformation of the village bureaucracy was carried out through three steps, namely increasing the capacity of village officials, simplifying administrative procedures, and strengthening the supervisory system. The simplification of administrative procedures aims to reduce excessive bureaucracy and speed up public services. Strengthening the supervisory system also plays an important role in improving accountability and transparency.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
ANETA, Yanti et al. Optimizing Village Bureaucracy Transformation: Gorontalo, Indonesia. Policy & Governance Review, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 3, p. 211-236, sep. 2023. ISSN 2580-4820. Available at: <https://journal.iapa.or.id/pgr/article/view/775>. Date accessed: 18 july 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.30589/pgr.v7i3.775.


A. Alghamdi, I., Goodwin, R., & Rampersad, G. (2011). E-Go v er nment R eadiness Assessment for Government Organizations in Developing Countries. Computer and Information Science, 4(3), 2–17. https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v4n3p3

Adhania, D., & Nurdin, I. (2022). Bibliometric Analysis: Trends in Innovative Government Research. TRANSFORMASI: Jurnal Manajemen Pemerintahan, 14(2), 119–130. https://doi.org/10.33701/jtp.v14i2.2841

Ahmad,J.,&Hardianti.(2020).AdoptingIncremental Innovation Approaches in the Digitalization of Village Government Services. In JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik) (hal. 145–162). researchgate.net. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jamaluddin- Ahmad /publication/348 92 76 55 _ A dopting_Incr emental_Inno v ation_ Appr oaches _ in_ th e_ D igitaliz atio n_ of_V il lage_Go v ernment_Services/ li nk s /6 0 1 7 5 8 0 4 a6 f d c c 0 7 1 ba9 1 3 8 9 / A d o pting-Incr e me ntal-Inno v ati o n- Approaches-in-the-Di

Alamsyah. (2017). Reposisi Peran Birokrasi Publik dalam Proses Politik Lokal. April 2003, 55–70.

Analiza, M. V., & Brilantes, A. B. (2020). Milestones of the Civil Service Commission and Bureaucratic Reform. Conference Paper, October. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.25268.07042

Andhika, L. R., Nurasa, H., Karlina, N., & Candradewini, C. (2018). Logic Model of Governance Innovation and Public Policy in Public Service. Policy & Governance Review, 2(2), 85. https://doi.org/10.30589/pgr. v2i2.86

Ariana, S., Azim, C., & Antoni, D. (2020). Clustering of ICT human resources capacity in the implementation of E-government in expansion area: a case study from pali regency. Cogent Business and Management, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2020.1754103

Arifah, U. (2020). Trans formasi Birokras Melalui E-Government. Cakrawala: Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Islam dan studi sosial, 4(2), 30–41. https://doi.org/10.33507/cakrawala.v4i2.245

Arslan, M., Lamba, M., & Oztop, S. (2020). Transformation of Passive Representation Into Symbolic Representation in the Framework of Representative Bureaucracy Approach: a Field Research on the Gendarmarie and the Police. Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Economics and Administrative Sciences Faculty, 7(2), 413–439.

Basu, S. (2004). E-government and developing countries: an overview. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 18(1), 109–132. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600860410001674779

Bauer, M. W., Peters, B. G., & Pierre, J. (2021). Policy Analysis Resilience: Public Bureaucracies. 03, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.2870/752884

Brika, S. K. M., Algamdi, A., Chergui, K., Musa, A. A., & Zouaghi, R. (2021). Quality of Higher Education: A Bibliometric Review Study. Frontiers in Education, 6(May), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.666087

Brunswicker, S., Priego, L. P., & Almirall, E. (2019). Transparency in policy making: A complexity view. Government Information Quarterly. https://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S0740624X18301047

Bryson, J. M., Crosby, B. C., & Bloomberg, L. (2014). Public value governance: Moving beyond traditional public administration and the new public management. Public Administration Review, 74(4), 445–456. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12238

Bwalya, K. J. (2009). Factors Affecting Adoption of e-Government in Zambia. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 38(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1681-4835.2009.tb00267.x

Cao, Q. T., Vuong, Q. H., Pham, H. H., Luong, D. H., Ho, M. T., Hoang, A. D., & Do, M. T. (2021). A bibliometric review of research on international students’ mental health: Science mapping of the literature from 1957 to 2020. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 11(3), 781–794. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030056

Claver, E., Llopis, J., Gasco, J., Molina, H., & Conca, F. (2004). Public administration From bureaucratic culture to citizen-oriented culture. The Eletronic Library, 34(1), 455–464.

Cordella, A., & Paletti, A. (2018). ICTs and value creation in public sector: Manufacturing logic vs service logic. Information Polity, 23(2), 125–141. https://doi.org/10.3233/ IP-170061

Curtis, S., & Edwards, J. (2019). Improving public services by sharing the right information. Public Money &Management, 39(5), 355–358. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540962.2019.1611238

Doni, E. R. P., Albert, A., & Juniarta, S. (2021). Penyimpanan Digital dan Dokumen Online Berbasis Teknologi Informasi untuk Mendukung Kegiatan Administrasi Pemerintahan Desa Baja Dolok Kecamatan Sipispis. 1(3), 33–37. http://ejournal.ust. ac.id/index.php/ULEAD

Edwards, D. B., DeMatthews, D., Spear, A., & Hartley, H. (2021). Community participation and empowerment in marginalised contexts: leveraging parental involvement, adult education, and community organising through social justice leadership. Compare, 51(8), 1190–1207. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2020.1717927

Erni, S., Agusdin, & Alamsyah. (2017). Universitas mataram. Jurnal Magister Manajemen Universitas Mataram, 6(1), 1–16.

Firdaus, & Susi, L. (2020). Reposisi dan Peran Birokrasi. Ilmu Administrasi dan Studi Kebijakan (JIASK), 3(1), 51–58.

Fukuyama, F. (2013). What is governance? Governance, 26(3), 347–368. https://doi.org/10.1111/gove.12035

Gasco-Hernandez, M., Nasi, G., Cucciniello, M., & Hiedemann, A. M. (2022). The role of organizational capacity to foster digital transformation in local governments: The case of three European smart cities. Urban Governance, 2(2), 236–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ugj.2022.09.005

Gong, Y., Yang, J., & Shi, X. (2020). Towards a comprehensive understanding of digital transformation in government: Analysis of flexibility and enterprise architecture. Government Information Quarterly, 37(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2020.101487

Hafseld, K. H. J., Hussein, B., & Rauzy, A. R. (2021). Government inter-organizational, digital transformation projects: Five key lessons learned from a Norwegian case study. Procedia Computer Science, 196(2021), 910–919. https://doi.or g/10.1016/j.procs.2021.12.092

Hanisch, M., Goldsby, C. M., Fabian, N. E., & Oehmichen, J. (2023). Digital governance: A conceptual framework and research agenda. Journal of Business Research, 162(February), 113777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2023.113777

Hawari, A. Y., & Kartini, D. S. (2023). Transformasi Birokrasi di Indonesia Pasca Pandemi. Jurnal Pemerintahan dan Kebijakan ( JPK), 4(2), 124–136. https://doi.org/10.18196/jpk. v4i2.18275

Hoai, T. T., Hung, B. Q., & Nguyen, N. P. (2022). The impact of internal control systems on the intensity of innovation and organizational performance of public sector organizations in Vietnam: the moderating role of transformational leadership. Heliyon, 8(2), e08954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e08954

Igbokwe-Ibeto, C. J., Ogunlela, Y. I., & Nnaji, I. L. (2020). African Bureaucracy and Cost of Governance: Road Map for Resolving the High Cost of Governance in Africa. KIU Journal of Humanities, 5(3), 21–31. http:// ijhumas.com/ojs/index.php/kiuhums/ article/view/1002

Ika Widiastuti. (2023). Strategi Penyederhanaan Birokrasi Pemerintah Daerah Melalui Model The Professional Bureaucracy di Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan Nonformal, 09(2), 885–890. http://ejurnal.pps.ung.ac.id/index.php/Aksara

Imran, F., Shahzad, K., Butt , A., & Kantola, J. (2021). Digital Transformation of Industrial Organizations: Toward an Integrated Framework. Journal of Change Management, 21(4), 451–479. https://doi.org/10.1080/14697017.2021.1929406

Insani, P. A., & Azwari, T. (2020). Bureaucratic Transformation As a Support of Smart City. Researchgate.Net, August. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/M-Al-Syahrin-2/publication/343417221_ BUREAUCRATIC_ TRANSFORMATION_AS_A_SUPPORT_OF_SMART_CITY/links/5f292ee192851cd302d86be4/BUREAUCRATIC-TRANSFORMATION-AS-A-SUPPORT-OF-SMART-CITY.pdf

Irani, Z., Abril, R. M., Weerakkody, V., Omar, A., & Sivarajah, U. (2023). The impact of legacy systems on digital transformation in European public administration: Lesson learned from a multi case analysis. Government Information Quarterly, 40(1), 101784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2022.101784

Jacob, J., Latupeirissa, P., Luh, N., Lesatri, Y., Srikandi, M . B., M ade, N., & B est ari, P. (2023). Sosialisasi Strategi Transformasi Desa Digital Dalam Rangka Mewujudkan Desa Cerdas (Smart Village). Communnity Development Journal, 4(2), 1456–1462.

Jaskyte, K. (2004). Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in Sport Organizations. The Sports Journal, 15(2), 153–168. http://thesportjournal.org/article/transformational-leadership-organizational-culture/

Kalangi, L ., & Pusung, R. (2023 ). Evaluasi Pertanggungjawaban Pelaksanaan Anggaran Pendapatan Dan Belanja Daerah Berdasarkan Permendagri No 77 Tahun 2020 Terhadap Laporan Keuangan Pada UPTD Balai Perbenihan Dan Persuteraan Alam Dinas Kehutanan Daerah Provinsi Sulawesi Utara. Jurnal LPPM Bidang EkoSosBudKum (Ekonomi, Sosial, Budaya, dan Hukum), 6(2), 1223–1230.

Khanra, S., Dhir, A., Kaur, P., & Mäntymäki, M. (2021). Bibliometric analysis and literature review of ecotourism: Toward sustainable development. Tourism Management Perspectives, 37(November). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100777

Kondratenko, V., Okopnyk, O., Ziganto, L., & Kwilinski, A. (2020). Innovation Development of Public Administration: Management and Legislation Features. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 6718(1), 87–94. https://doi.org/10.21272/mmi.2020.1-06

Leal-Rodríguez, A. L., Sanchís-Pedregosa, C., Moreno-Moreno, A. M., & Leal-Millán, A. G. (2023). Digitalization beyond technology: Proposing an explanatory and predictive model for digital culture in organizations. Journal of Innovation and Knowledge, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2023.100409

Lembong, F., Lapian, M. T., & Kalangie, F. (2017). Penataan Administrasi Desa Dalam Menunjang Efektivitas Penyelenggaraan Pemerintahan Di Desa Tewasen Kecamatan Amurang Barat. Jurnal Eksekutif, 1(1), (1-15).

Li, Y., & Shang, H. (2020). Service quality, perceived value, and citizens’ continuous-use intention regarding e-government: Empirical evidence from China. Information and Management, 57(3), 103197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. im.2019.103197

Lipsky, M. (1979). Street-level bureaucrac y. Dilemmas of the individual in public services. Russell Sage.

Madan, R., & Ashok, M. (2023). AI adoption and diffusion in public administration: A systematic literature review and future research agenda. Government Information Quarterly, 40(1), 101774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2022.101774

Maggetti, M., & Verhoest, K. (2014). Unexplored aspects of bureaucratic autonomy: Astate of the field and ways forward. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 80(2), 239–256. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020852314524680

Masuda, H., Kawakubo, S., Okitasari, M ., & Morita, K. (2022). Exploring the role of local governments as intermediaries to facilitate partnerships for the Sustainable Development Goals. Sustainable Cities and Society, 82(March), 103883. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.scs.2022.103883

Meijer, A., & Bekkers, V. (2015). A metatheory of e-government: Creating some order in a fragmented research field. Government Information Quarterly, 32(3), 237–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2015.04.006

Meijer, A., & Bolívar, M. P. R. (2016). Governing the smart city: a review of the literature on smart urban governance. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 82(2), 392–408. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020852314564308

Moch Wispandono, R. (2009). Reposisi Peran MSDM untuk Mengefektifkan Praktik MSDM di Organisasi Bisnis. Jurnal NeO-Bis, 3(2). https://journal.trunojoyo.ac.id/neo-bis/article/view/570/540

Moser-Plautz, B., & Schmidthuber, L. (2023). Digital government transformation as an organizational response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Government Information Quarterly, 40(3), 101815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2023.101815

Muhadam, L. (2023). Bureaucratic Reform in an Effort to Strengthen Local Government Functions. 10(5), 1399–1405.

Musaeva, A., Salmorbekova, R., Rustamova, D., & Abdullaeva, Z. (2020). Social Qualimetry of Public Services Standardization in the Kyrgyz Republic. Advances in Applied Sociology, 10(09), 348–355. https://doi.org/10.4236/aasoci.2020.109021

Mustar, A. R., Sobri, K. M., & Sriati, S. (2022). Segmentation of Vil lage A ccessibil ity of Education Service Facilities in Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan Regency. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik, 26(2), 102–114. https://journal.ugm.ac.id/jkap/article/view/60773

Naqshbandi, M. M., Tabche, I., & Choudhary, N. (2018). Managing open innovation: The roles of empowering leadership and employee involvement climate. Management Decision, 57(3), 703–723. https://doi.org/10.1108/ MD-07-2017-0660

Ndou, V. D. (2004). E - Government for Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 18(1), 1–24. https://doi. org/10.1002/j.1681-4835.2004.tb00117.x

Newman, J., Mintrom, M., & O’Neill, D. (2022). Digital technologies, artificial intelligence, and bureaucratic transformation. Futures, 136, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2021.102886

Noordt, C. Van, & Tangi, L. (2023). The dynamics of AI capability and its influence on public value creation of AI within public administration. Government Information Quarterly, July, 101860. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2023.101860

Nugrahayu, H., Wasistiono, S., Rowa, H., & Lukman, S. (2019). Bureaucracy Reform through Transformation of Public Services at the Department of Investment and One Door Integrated Services (Case Study in the City of Palangka Raya, Gunung Mas Regency and Central Kalimantan Province ). 5(1), 7478–7487. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.33258/birci.v5i1.4484

Nugroho, S. H., Bandono, A., & Suharyo, O. S. (2021). Human resources development assessment planning program and bureaucratic reform management on the performance of government organization. Management Science Letters, 11, 1429–1438. https://doi. org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.10.020

Nuralim, I., Navasari, S., Galuh, U., Malang, U. M., Galuh, U., & Desa, S. I. (2014). E-Government Di Desa Kertasaya Kecamatan. 128–136.

Osborne, S. P., Radnor, Z., Kinder, T., & Vidal, I. (2014). Sustainable public service organisations: A public service-dominant approach. Society and Economy, 36(3), 313–338. https://doi.org/10.1556/SocEc.36.2014.3.1

Owen, C. (2020). Participatory authoritarianism: From bureaucratic transf or mation t o civic participation in Russia and China. Review of International Studies, 46(4), 415–434. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0260210520000248

Panjaitan, E., Dewi, R., & Angelia, N. (2019). Peranan Pemerintah Desa dalam Meningkatkan Kualitas The Role of the Village Government in Improving the Quality of Administrative Services to the Community. Perspektif, 8(1), 32–38.

Polyakova, A., Kolmakov, V., & Yamova, O. (2019). Regional competitiveness response to innovation changes: issues of evaluation. Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis,11(2), 159–172. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.37043/JURA.2019.11.2.3

Pratama, inka, Darmansyah, & Subandi, A. (2023). Transformasi Good Governance dalam Peningkatan Kualitas Pelayanan Publik di Kota Mataram. Seminar Nasional LPPM UMMAT, 2(April), 1–13.

Ramarao, B. (2022). Democratic Backsliding of Public Administration in Authoritarian Regimes: A Cross Country Analysis. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 18 (1), 157–177. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8500.1959.tb02346.x

Rasul, I., & Rogger, D. (2018). Management of Bureucrats and Public Service Delivery: Evidence from the Nigerian Civil Service. Economic Journal, 128(May), 1–22. https:// doi.org/10.1111/ecoj.12

Razak, M. R. R., Ahmad, J., Mustanir, A., Madani, M., & Idhan, A. (2021). Effects of ICT Application (Information Communication and Technology) towards the Transformation of Regional Bureaucracy. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 717(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/717/1/012003

Rohim, A., & Budhiasa, I. G. S. (2019). Organizational culture as moderator in the relationship between organizational reward on knowledge sharing and employee performance. Journal of Management Development, 38(7), 538–560. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-07-2018-0190

Roszkowska, P., & Melé, D. (2021). Organizational Factors in the Individual Ethical Behaviour. The Notion of the “Organizational Moral Structure.” Humanistic Management Journal, 6(2), 187–209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41463-020-00080-z

Sarbu, R., Alpopi, C., Burlacu, S., & Diaconu, S. (2021). Sustainable Urban Development in the Context of Globalization and the Health Crisis Caused by the Covid-19 Pandemic. SHS Web of Conferences, 92, 01043. https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20219201043

Scupola, A., & Mergel, I. (2022). Co-production in digital transformation of public administration and public value creation: The case of Denmark. Government Information Quarterly, 39(1), 101650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2021.101650

Shkolnyk, I., Melnyk, T., Havrysh, Y., & Ivanchenko, A. (2020). Local finance transparency in Ukraine. Public and Municipal Finance, 8(1), 73–82. https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.08(1).2019.06

Spall, V. (2022). Digital government transformation in turbulent times: Responses, challenges, and future direction. Government Information Quarterly, 18(4), 375–378. https://doi. org/10.1016/s0740-624x(01)00093-4

Stevenson, W. (2014). Pacific Sociological Association. Pacific Sociological Association Change, 20(1), 61–72.

Sumardi, Nawir, A., & Mukhlis, S. (2021). Analisis Transformasi Birokrasi Melalui Pengembangan e-Government di Indonesia. Journal of Government Insight, 1(2), 84–91. https://doi.org/10.47030/jgi.v1i2.308

Sutanta, E. (2023). Dinamika Administrasi Publik Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Administrasi dan Manajemen, 2(1).

Syam, R., Ras, A., & Habibie, A. Y. (2023). Readiness And Obstacles Of Digital Bureaucracy Transformation In Rural Areas. Jurnal Sosiologi Nusantara, 9(1–18), 253–266.

Truscott, R. (2023). Auditing and the unconscious: managerialism’s memory traces. Social Dynamics, 49(1), 49–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/02533952.2023.2167422

Viale Pereira, G., Cunha, M. A., Lampoltshammer, T. J., Parycek, P., & Testa, M. G. (2017). Increasing collaboration and participation in smart city governance: a cross-case analysis of smart city initiatives. Information Technology for Development, 23(3), 526–553. https://doi.org/10.1080/02681102.2017.1353946

Wang, J., Zhang, Y., Yang, G., Wang, Y., Cheng, X., & Xu, B. (2023). Spatial Reconstruction of Traditional Villages towards Synergistic Development in the Fuchun River Basin Based on the Gravity Model. Land, 12(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/land12051037

Wibowo, D. S., & Sihite, M. (2021). Strategy of Police Bureaucracy Reform through Work Ethics Climate, Leadership Commitment, and Organizational Communication Climate against Commitmentto Changeat the Depok Metro Police. International Journal of Research and Review, 8(8), 722–730. https:// doi.org/10.52403/ijrr.20210895

Wicaksana, A., & Rachman, T. (2018). Optimalisasi Sumber Daya Manusia Perangkat Desa Di Desa Bukit Pedusunan Kecamatan Kuantanmudik Kabupaten Kuantan Singingi. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 6(11), 951–952., 3(1), 10–27. https://medium.com/@arifwicaksanaa/pengertian- use-case-a7e576e1b6bf

Winurini, S. (2019). Workplace Well-Being Pada Pegawai Negeri Sipil Setelah Reformasi Birokrasi (Studi Kasus: Pemerintah Kota Yogyakarta). Workplace Well-Being pada Pegawai Negeri Sipil setelah Reformasi Birokrasi WORKPLACE, 24(4), 237–252.

Yusuf, I. M. (2018). Restrukturisasi dan Reformasi Birokrasi (Sebagai Solusi Menata Hubungan Politik dan Birokrasi). Dinamika : Jurnal Ilmiah Administrasi Negara, 05(2), 22–28.

Zakiyyah, F. N., Winoto, Y., & Rohanda, R. (2022). Pemetaan bibliometrik terhadap perkembangan penelitian arsitektur informasi pada Google Scholar menggunakan VOSviewer. Informatio: Journal of Library and Information Science, 2(1), 43. https://doi.org/10.24198/inf.v2i1.37766

Harfianto, H. D., Raharjo, T., Hardian, B., & Wahbi, A. (2022). Agile Transformation Challenges and Solutions in Bureaucratic Government: A Systematic Literature Review. In 2022 5th International Conference on Computers in Management and Business (ICCMB). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/3512676.3512679

Singh, P. K ., & Chu da sa ma , H. (2023). Geo- information-enabled village level micro-planning for enhancing common good. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S0040162523000215

Udjianto, D., Hakim, A., Domai, T., Suryadi, S., & Hayat, H. (2021). Community development and economic welfare through the village fund policy. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 8(1), 563-572.

Wahid, S. H., Kususiyanah, A., Sirait, W. Y., & Umbar, K. (2023). Analisis Data Kualitatif Menggunakan Nvivo. Publica Indonesia Utama.