Local Level Collaborative Governance for Pandemic Responses: Unpacking A Case in Bangladesh

Main Article Content

Ashraful Alam Md Mahmudul Hoque

Abstract

Responsive governance during the COVID-19 pandemic became a severe challenge for countries worldwide. With a relatively poor healthcare structure, Bangladesh performed moderately well in managing the first wave of the pandemic (March – December 2020). With substantive policy and decision-making support from the Centre, local governments collaborated with various relevant actors to enhance their pandemic- related services. In this background, this research used an integrative framework to study a case of local-level collaborative governance – the Saturia Model. Based on the authors' experience, reflections and review, this analysis explores various socio-economic and environmental factors behind the effectiveness of this collaboration in containment policies and providing support services to vulnerable groups. Findings indicate that coordination between state and non-state actors, resource mobilization, access and communication, community engagement and the adaptative capacity of the government are vital for making such collaborations work in a crisis. The lessons are valuable for prospective understanding and policy interventions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
ALAM, Ashraful; HOQUE, Md Mahmudul. Local Level Collaborative Governance for Pandemic Responses: Unpacking A Case in Bangladesh. Policy & Governance Review, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 3, p. 207-228, sep. 2022. ISSN 2580-4820. Available at: <https://journal.iapa.or.id/pgr/article/view/589>. Date accessed: 03 oct. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.30589/pgr.v6i3.589.
Section
Articles

References

ADB. (2021). Poverty Data: Bangladesh. Asian Development Bank. https://www.adb.org/ countries/bangladesh/poverty

Agranoff, R., & McGuire, M. (2001). Big Questions in Public Network Management. J Public Admin Res Theory, 11. https://doi.org/10.1093/ oxfordjournals.jpart.a003504

Ahsan, A. H. M. K. (2018). Factors affecting inter- organisational coordination: A case of policy implementation in rural Bangladesh. Development in Practice, 28(8), 1083–1093. https://doi.org/10.1080/09614524.2018.1508420

Akanda, A. A. M., & Ahmed, R. (2020). How successful Bangladesh is in controlling the coronavirus pandemic? Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 44(1), 196. https://doi.org/10.1186/ s42269-020-00451-4

Alam, A., Dutta, I., Haque, M. E., & Nogales, R. (2022). Impact of Rohingya refugees on food prices in Bangladesh: Evidence from a natural experiment. World Development, 154, 105873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. worlddev.2022.105873

Alam, M. A. (2020). Leading in the shadows: Understanding administrative leadership in the context of COVID-19 pandemic management in Bangladesh. InternationalJournal of Public Leadership, 17(1), 95–107. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPL-06-2020-0050

Alam, M., & Ahmed, K. (2008). E-governance initiatives in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on T heor y and Pr actic e of El ectr onic Governance-ICEGOV ’08, 291. https://doi. org/10.1145/1509096.1509157

Alpi, K. M., & Evans, J. J. (2019). Distinguishing case study as a research method from case reports as a publication type. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA,107(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2019.615

Ansell, C ., & Gash, A. (2007). Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(4), 543–571. https://doi. org/10.1093/jopart/mum032

Anwar, S., Nasrullah, M., & Hosen, M. J. (2020). COVID-19 and Bangladesh: Challenges and How to Address Them. Frontiers in Public Health, 8. https://www.frontiersin.org/ article/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00154

Batory, A., & Svensson, S. (2019). The fuzzy concept of collaborative governance: A systematic review of the state of the art. Central European Journal of Public Policy,13(2), 28–39. https://doi.org/10.2478/cejpp-2019-0008

Bdnews24. (2020, March 16). Saudi-returnee penal ised for b reak ing quarant ine in Manikganj. Bdnews 24.Com. https: //bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2020/03/16/saudi-returnee-penalised-for-breaking- quarantine-in-manikganj

Bentrup, G. (2001). Evaluation of a collaborative model: A case study analysis of watershed planning in the Int ermountain West. Environmental Management, 27(5), 739–748. ttps: //doi.org/10.1007s002670010184

Bhattacharya, D., Rezbana, U. S., & Fuad, S. M. (2018). Decentral ised Gov ernance, Corruption and Anti-corruption Measures: An Enquiry in Bangladesh Experience (p. 135) [Study Report]. Centre for Policy Dialogue. https://cpd.org.bd/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/CPD-ODI-Project-Report-Decentralised-Governance-Corruption-and-Anti-corruption-Measures- An-Enquiry-in-Bangladesh-Experience.pdf

Bilous, R. H., Hammersley, L. A., & Lloyd, K. (2018). Reflective practice as a research method for co-creating curriculum with international partner organisations. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 19(3), 287–296.

Bivona, E., & Not o, G. (2020). Fost ering Col l a b ora t ive Governa nce in Chronic Disease Management Programs: A Dynamic Performance Management Approach. In C. Bianchi, L. F. Luna-Reyes, & E. Rich (Eds.), Enabling Collaborative Governance through Systems Modeling Methods: Public Policy Design and Implementation (pp. 297–315). Springer International Publishing. https:// doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42970-6_14

Bodrud-Doza, Md., Shammi, M., Bahlman, L., Islam, A. R. Md. T., & Rahman, Md. M. (2020). Psychosocial and Socio-Economic Crisis in Bangladesh Due to COVID-19 Pandemic: A Perception-Based Assessment. Frontiers in Public Health, 8. https://www.frontiersin. org/article/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00341

Bryson, J. M., Crosby, B. C., & Stone, M. M. (2006). The Design and Implementation of Cross- Sector Collaborations: Propositions from the Literature. Public Administration Review, 66(s1), 44–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2006.00665.x

Chisthi, S. (2021, January 30). The Nightmare: The Modi government’s persecution of the Tablighi Jamaat. The Caravan, January 2021. https://caravanmagazine.in/politics/nightmare-persecution-tablighi-jamaat

Coltart, C. E. M., Lindsey, B., Ghinai, I., Johnson, A. M., & Heymann, D. L. (2017). The Ebola outbreak, 2013–2016: Old lessons for new epidemics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 372 (1721), 20160297. h tps://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0297

Coulson, D., Harvey, M., Winchester-Seeto, T., & Mackaway, J. (2010). Exploring evidence for the role of reflection for learning through participation: Australian Collaborative Education Network Conference. ACEN 2010, 92–103.

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (Fourth edition). SAGE.

Criado, J. I., & Guevara-Gómez, A. (2021). Public sector, open innovation, and collaborative governance in lockdown times. A research of Spanish cases during the COVID-19 crisis. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 15(4), 612–626. https://doi. org/10.1108/TG-08-2020-0242

Cucinotta, D., & Vanelli, M. (2020). WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic. Acta Bio Medica Atenei Parmensis, 91(1), 157–160. https:// doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i1.9397

Cyr, J., Bianchi, M., González, L., & Perini, A. (2021). Governing a Pandemic: Assessing the Role of Collaboration on Latin American Responses to the COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Politics in Latin America, 13(3), 290–327. https://doi. org/10.1177/1866802X211049250

Daily Bangladesh. (2020a, March 11). More 20 returnees quarantined in Manikganj. Daily Bangladesh. https://www.daily-bangladesh.com/english/More-20-returnees-quarantined-in-Manikganj/38483

Daily Bangladesh. (2020b, June 6). Manikganj reports 88 more coronavirus cases. The Daily Bangladesh. https://www.daily- bang ladesh.com/eng lish/Manik g anj- reports-88-more-coronavirus-cases/44184

Donahue, J. D., & Zeckhauser, R. (2011). Collaborative governance: Private roles for public goals in turbulent times. Princeton Univ. Press.

Dutta, A., & Fischer, H. W. (2021). The local governance of COVID-19: Disease prevention and social security in rural India. World Development, 138, 105234. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105234

Emerson, K., & Nabatchi, T. (2015). Evaluating the Productivity of Collaborative Governance Regimes: A Performance Matrix. Public Performance & Management Review, 38(4), 717–747. https://doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2015.1031016

Emerson, K., Nabatchi, T., & Balogh, S. (2012). An Integrative Framework for Collaborative Governance. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22(1), 1–29. https:// doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mur011

Fook, J. (2011). Developing Critical Reflection as a Research Method. In J. Higgs, A. Titchen, D. Horsfall, & D. Bridges (Eds.), Creative Spaces for Qualitative Researching (pp. 55–64). SensePublishers. https://doi. org/10.1007/978-94-6091-761-5_6

Gao, X., & Yu, J . (2020). Public gover nance mechanism in the prevention and control of the COVID-19: Information, decision- making and execution. J. Chinese Gov., 2(5), 178–197.

GHS. (2019). Global Health Security Index (p. 324) [Index Report]. Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI); Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. https://www.ghsindex.org/about/

Global Economy. (2019). Government effectiveness—Countr y rankings [Index Report]. The Global Economy. https:// www.theglobaleconomy.com/rankings/ wb_government_effectiveness/

GoB. (2020). National Preparedness and Response Plan for COVID-19, Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh. http://www.mohfw.gov.bd/ index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_ download&gid=23359&lang=en

GoB. (2022a). The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh. http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/ act-367.html?lang=en

GoB. (2022b, April). Saturia Upazila: At a glance [Government Website]. http://saturia. manikganj.gov.bd/en/site/page/Zkjm-%E 0%A6%8F%E 0%A6%95-%E 0%A6%A8%E0%A6%9C %E0%A6%B0%E0 %A7%87-%E0%A6%B8%E0%A6%BE% E0%A6%9F%E0%A7%81%E0%A6%B0%E0%A6%BF%E0%A7%9F%E0%A6%BE

Graffigna, G., Barello, S., Savarese, M., Palamenghi, L., Castellini, G., Bonanomi, A., & Lozza, E. (20 2 0 ). Measuring Italian citizens’ engagement in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic containment measures: A cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE, 15(9), e0238613. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238613

Grizzle, D., Goodin, A., & Robinson, S. E. (2020). Connecting with New Partners in COVID-19 Response. Public Administration Review, 80(4), 629–633. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13247

Habib, W. B., & Adhikary, T. S. (2020, July 3). Committees to Tackle Pandemic: Too much hype, little outcome. The Daily Star. https:// www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/news/ committees-tackle-pandemic-too-much- hype-little-outcome-1924313

Hoque, M. M. (2018). Information Institutions and the Political Accountability in Bangladesh. Int ernational Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 9(2), 1586–1596.

Hoque, M. M. (2020). Covid-19 and Child Labour in Dhaka: Call for reviewed policy actions. IDS Alumni Blog. https://alumni.ids.ac.uk/ news/blogs-perspectives-provocations- initiatives/perspectives-provocations-initiatives-covid-1 9/542/542-Covid-19-and-Child-Labour-in-Dhaka-Call-for-reviewed-policy-actions

Hoque, M. M. (2021a). Reviewing Child Labour and its Worst Forms: Contemporary Theoretical and Policy Agenda. Journal of Modern Slavery, 6(4), 32–51.

Hoque, M. M. (2021b). Forced Labour and access to Education of Rohingya Refugee Children in Bangladesh: Beyond a Humanitarian Crisis. Journal of Modern Slavery, 6(3), 20–35. https://doi.org/10.22150/jms/PPJY4309

Hossain, A. N. M. Z. (2021). Local Government Response to COVID-19: Revitalizing Local Democracy in Bangladesh. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 16(4), 701–712. https://doi.org/10.18280/ijsdp.160410

Hsieh, C.-W., Wang, M., Wong, N. W., & Ho, L. K. (2021). A whole-of-nation approach to COVID-19: Taiwan’s National Epidemic Prevention Team. International Political Science Review, 42(3), 300–315. https://doi.org/10.1177/01925121211012291

Huang, I. Y.-F. (2020). Fighting COVID-19 through Government Initiatives and Collaborative Governance: The Taiwan Experience. Public Administration Review, 80(4), 665–670. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13239

Islam, Md. T., Talukder, A. K., Siddiqui, Md. N., & Islam, T. (2020). Tackling the COVID-19 pandemic: The Bangladesh perspective. Journal of Public Health Research, 9(4), 1794. https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2020.1794

Islam, R., & Hoque, M. M. (2022). Trade-off Between Schooling and Labour for Children: Understanding the Determinative Factors Among Rural Households in Bangladesh. F r ontiers in Sociolog y . https://doi. org/10.3389/fsoc.2022.839231

Islam, S. T., & Islam, E. (2012). Barriers and Scope of Political Participa- tion of Women in Local Government of Bangladesh: Union Parishad Perspective. Journal of International Social Issues, 1(1), 71–85.

Jayasinghe, K., Kenney, C. M., Prasanna, R., & Velasquez, J. (2020). Enacting “accountability in collaborative governance”: Lessons in emergency management and earthquake recovery from the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquakes. Journal of Public Budgeting, Ac c o unting & Financial Manag ement ,32(3), 439–459. https://doi.org/10.1108/ JPBAFM-09-2019-0143

Jones, J. L., & Jones, K . A. (2013). Teaching Reflective Practice: Implementation in the Teacher-Education Setting. The Teacher Educator, 48(1), 73–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/08878730.2012.740153

Kallis, G., Kiparsky, M., & Norgaard, R. (2009). Collaborative governance and adaptive management: Lessons from California’s CALFED Water Program. Environmental Science & Policy, 12(6), 631–643. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2009.07.002

Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. (2009). Governance Matters VIII: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators (1996–2008) (Working Paper No. 4978; Policy Research Working Paper, p. 105). World Bank. https://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/ abs/10.1596/1813-9450-4978

Khan, M., Roy, P., Matin, I., Rabbani, M., & Chowdhury, R. (2021). An adaptive governance and health system response for the COVID-19 emergency. World Development, 137, 105213. https://doi.or g/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105213

Khanna, R. C., Cicinelli, M. V., Gilbert, S. S., Honavar, S. G., & Murthy, G. V. S. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons learned and future directions. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 68(5), 703–710. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_843_20

Khaton, R., Hoque, M. M., & Das, C. P. (2018). An Anal y sis of the Socio-economic Background of the Bangladesh Civil Service Administration Cadre Officials. Bangladesh Journal of Administration and Management, 29(1), 30–44.

Klimovsky, D., Maly, I., & Nemec, J. (2021). Collaborative Governance Challenges of the COVID-19 Pandemics: Czech Republic and Slovakia. Central European Public Administration Review (CEPAR), 19, 85.

Lai, A. Y. (2012). Organizational Collaborative Capacity in Fighting Pandemic Crises: A Literature Review From the Public Management Perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 24(1), 7–20. https:// doi.org/10.1177/1010539511429592

Li, B., Qian, J., Xu, J., & Li, Y. (2022). Collaborative governance in emergencies: Community food supply in COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Urban Governance. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ugj.2022.03.002

Maharani, D., & Andhika, L. R. (2021). Rational Intervention Public Policy for Public Service Innovation. Policy & Governance Review, 5(2), 182–194. https://doi.org/10.30589/pgr.v5i2.383

Mahmud, I. (2020, April 11). Bangladesh police struggle enforcing pandemic shutdown. New Age. https://www.newagebd.net/article/104228/bangladesh-pol ice-struggle-enforcing-pandemic-shutdown

Mangai, M. S., Masiya, T., & Davids, Y. D. (2022). A Comparative Policy for the COVID-19 Emergency Management of Frontline Health Workers in Selected African Countries. Policy & Governance Review, 6(1), 90–106. https://doi.org/10.30589/pgr.v6i1.466

Mao, Y. (2020). Combating COVID-19 Through Collaborative Governance: Lessons from East Asia. Chinese Public Administration Review, 11(2), 132. https://doi.org/10.22140/cpar. v11i2.255

Megawat i, S., Niswah, F., & Ok t ariyanda, T. A. (2020). Collaborative Governance as Handling Efforts of Pandemic Covid-19 in Surabaya City: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Social Sciences (ICSS 2020). 3rd International Conference on Social Sciences (ICSS 2020), Makassar, Indonesia. https://doi.or g/10.2991/ assehr.k.201014.067

Mollah, A. H. (2020). Role of Parliament and Governance in Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects. Journal of International Politics,2(2), 6–16.

Panday, P. (2011). Local Government System in Bangladesh: How Far is it Decentralised? Lexlocalis- Journal of Local Self-Government, 9(3), 205–230. https://doi. org/10.4335/9.3.205-230(2011)

Parker, C. F., Nohrstedt, D., Baird, J., Hermansson, H., Rubin, O., & Baekkeskov, E. (2020). Collaborative crisis management : A plausibility probe of core assumptions. Policy and Society, 39(4), 510–529. https:// doi.org/10.1080/14494035.2020.1767337

Ritchie, H. (2019). Which countries are most densely populated? World in Data. https://ourw or ldindata.or g/most-densel y-populated-countries

Saha, P., & Gulshan, J. (2021). Sy st ematic Assessment of COVID-19 Pandemic in Bangladesh: Effectiveness of Preparedness in the First Wave. Frontiers in Public Health, 9. https://www.frontiersin.org/ article/10.3389/fpubh.2021.628931

Schwar tz , J ., & Yen, M. -Y. (20 17). Toward a collabor ative model of pandemic prepare dne ssand response : Taiwan’s changing approach to pandemics. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 50(2), 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jmii.2016.08.010

Shamim, M. M. I., Shavarebi, K., & Raihan, M. (2020). Planning of Information and Communication Technologies Training Project and Its Impact: A Case Study of Bangladesh. ELK ASIA PACIFIC JOURNAL OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL, 5(1), 1–13.

Subatin, B., & Pramusinto, A. (2019). Collaborative Governance in Off-site Anoa Conservation at The Anoa Breeding Center of The Manado Environment and Forestry Research and Development Institute. Policy & Governance Review, 3(1), 43. https://doi.org/10.30589/ pgr.v3i1.126

Tabassum, T., Farzana, M., Ullah, M. A., Araf, Y., Prottoy, M. N. I., & Hosen, M. J. (2020). The First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic: E xperiences from Bangladesh (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3755159). Social Science Research Network. https://doi. org/10.2139/ssrn.3755159

Tama, R. A. Z., Ying, L., Happy, F. A., & Hoque, M. M. (2018a). An Empirical Study on Socio- economic Status of Women Labor in Rice Husking Mill of Bangladesh. South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.9734/sajsse/2018/ v2i225835

Tama, R. A. Z., Ying, L., Happy, F. A., & Hoque, M. M. (2018b). An Empirical Study on Socio- economic Status of Women Labor in Rice Husking Mill of Bangladesh. South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.9734/sajsse/2018/ v2i225835

Tama, R. A. Z., Ying, L., Yu, M., Hoque, M. M., Adnan, K. M., & Sarker, S. A. (2021). Assessing farmers’ intention towards conservation agriculture by using the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Environmental Management, 280, 111654. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111654

Tenny, S., Brannan, G. D., Brannan, J. M., & Sharts- Hopko, N. C. (2022). Qualitative Study. In StatPear ls. Stat Pearls Publishing. http://www.ncbi.nl m.nih.gov/books/ NBK470395/

Thomson, A. M., & Perry, J. L. (2006). Collaboration Processes: Inside the Black Box. Public Administration Review, 66(s1), 20–32. htt ps://doi.or g/10.1111/j.1540- 6210.2006.00663.x

Uddin, K. F. (2 02 1 ). COV ID -1 9 Pand emic Is A bout More than Health: A State of Governance Challenges in Bangladesh. South Asian Survey, 28(1), 72–91. https:// doi.org/10.1177/0971523121993344

Vaz, R. G ., Mkand a, P., Band a, R., Ko mke ch , W., Ekundare-Famiyesin, O. O., Onyibe, R., Abidoye, S., Nsubuga, P., Maleghemi, S., Hannah-Murele, B., & Tegegne, S. G. (2016). The Role of the Polio Program nfrastructure in Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Nigeria 2014. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 213(suppl 3), S140– S146. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/ jiv581

WHO. (2020). COVID-19 Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Global research and innovation forum (p.7) [Research Roadmap]. World Health Or ganization. https://www.w ho.int/ publications/m/item/covid-19-public-health-emergency-of-international-concern-(pheic)-global-res earch-and-innovation-forum

Worldometer. (2022). Bangladesh: Coronavirus Update [Data Reporting]. Worldometer. https: //www. worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/bangladesh/